Traditional grammar suggests there are eight parts of speech, which are as follows:
Verb: expresses an action eg. playing tennis
Noun: names a place, thing or idea eg. A chicken lays an egg
Adjective: a word naming the attribute of a noun. A descriptor eg. wild, juicy berries
Adverb: a word that modifies the meaning of an adjective, verb or other adverb, describing manner, place, time of degree eg. quite sad
Pronoun: takes the place of the noun in a sentence and refers to a person eg. He went to the shop.
Preposition: sits before a noun (or pronoun) to show the noun's relationship to another word in the sentence eg. He arrived after lunch
Conjunction: the part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences eg. I was taught that the way of progress was neither swift nor easy.
Interjection: Expresses emotion that has no relation to the rest of the sentence eg. No, go away.
Here's a great video to help remember them: