Nothing new. He just wrote a book about it.
Chemical. One "unscientific" method of determining this is asking the question, "Can I undo this?" You can't grab the smoke and put it back onto the candle so it is a chemical change. But for example, if you cut a piece of paper, you can tape it back together and it is a physical change.
Native Americans' descendants now get a free eduction form the white settlers' descendants.
The Quran was written in the 7th century AD. The bible was written from the 13th century BC(estimate) to the 2nd century AD.